# How to use the AND function

The image above demonstrates the AND function with two logical expressions. If the value in column B is equal to "North" and the value on the same row in column C is above 500 the AND function returns TRUE. These conditions are only met on row 6.

Formula in cell D3:

This article demonstrates how to use the AND function.

### Table of Contents

## 1. Excel function syntax

AND(logical1, [logical2], ...)

The AND function allows you to perform a logical test in each argument and if all arguments return TRUE the AND function returns TRUE. If at least one argument returns FALSE the AND function returns FALSE.

## 2. Arguments

logical1 | Required. A logical expression or a function that returns a number. |

[logical2] | Optional. Also a logical expression or a function that returns a number. You can have up to 254 arguments. |

## 3. How to use numerical values in the AND function

The AND function arguments can result in TRUE or FALSE, however, it also treats all numbers, both positive and negative, as TRUE.

The exception to that is 0 (zero) which is treated the same as FALSE.

## 4. How to use an array with the AND function

The AND function also allows you to not only compare a single cell value but also an entire cell range.

Formula in cell E3:

To enter the formula above as an array formula, type the formula in a cell. Press and hold CTRL + SHIFT keys simultaneously, then press Enter once. Release all keys. The formula is now enclosed with curly brackets, they indicate you successfully entered the formula as an array formula. Don't enter the curly brackets yourself.

### 4.1 Explaining formula in cell E3

#### Step 1 - Check if array values are larger than the condition

The larger than character is a logical operator that returns boolean value TRUE if the value is larger than a condition and FALSE if not.

B3:B7>130

becomes

{123; 121; 145; 119; 154}>130

An array may contain values arranged in a single column/row or in a 2D array meaning multiple columns and rows.

{123; 121; 145; 119; 154}>130

and returns

{FALSE; FALSE; TRUE; FALSE; TRUE}

#### Step 2 - Evaluate AND function

The formula in cell D3 checks if each value in cell range B3:B7 is larger than 130. Three values are not larger than 130 so the AND function returns FALSE.

AND(B3:B7>130)

becomes

AND({FALSE; FALSE; TRUE; FALSE; TRUE})

and returns FALSE. All booleans values must be TRUE for the AND function to return TRUE.

### 4.2 How to use multiple arrays with the AND function

The array formula above in cell E3 has two arguments containing a logical expression in each. The first argument checks if values in cell range C3:C7 are larger than 100.

Formula in cell E3:

#### Step 1 - First condition

C3:C7>100

becomes

{123; 121; 145; 119; 154}>100

and returns

{TRUE; TRUE; TRUE; TRUE; TRUE}

#### Step 2 - Second condition

The second argument checks if values in cell range B3:B7 are not empty.

B3:B7<>""

becomes

{"North";"South";"East";"West";"West"}<>""

and returns

{TRUE; TRUE; TRUE; TRUE; TRUE}.

#### Step 3 - Evaluate AND function

All values are TRUE so the AND function returns TRUE.

AND(C3:C7>100,B3:B7<>"")

becomes

AND({TRUE;TRUE;TRUE;TRUE;TRUE},{TRUE; TRUE; TRUE; TRUE; TRUE}) and returns TRUE.

There are two separate arrays in the AND function, however, it doesn't matter. All values must be TRUE or its numerical equivalent to return TRUE.

## 5. AND function in IF function example

The image above demonstrates a formula that combines the AND function and the IF function. If the "Region" is equal to "North" and the "Amount" on the same row is above 200 then multiply with 1.2.

If not return the amount only.

Formula in cell E3:

### 5.1 Explaining formula in cell E3

#### Step 1 - First condition

The equal sign is a logical operator that returns boolean value TRUE if a value matches another value. It returns FALSE if not.

B3="North"

becomes

"North"="North"

and returns TRUE.

#### Step 2 - Second condition

The larger than sign is a logical operator that returns boolean value TRUE if a value is larger than another value. It returns FALSE if not.

C3>200

becomes

400>200

and returns TRUE.

#### Step 3 - Evaluate AND function

The AND function returns TRUE if all arguments evaluates to TRUE.

AND(B3="North", C3>200)

becomes

AND(TRUE, TRUE)

#### Step 4 - Calculate IF function

The IF function returns one value if the logical test is TRUE and another value if the logical test is FALSE.

IF(logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])

IF(AND(B3="North", C3>200), 1.2*C3, C3)

becomes

IF(TRUE, 1.2*C3, C3)

becomes

IF(TRUE, 1.2*400, C3)

and returns 480.

## 6. AND function with text

The formula in cell E3 checks if cell B3 is equal to a given text condition and cell C3 is equal to another given text condition, both conditions must be met to returns "Match!".

Cell E6 returns "Match!", both conditions are met.

Formula in cell E3:

### 6.1 Explaining formula in cell E3

#### Step 1 - First condition

The equal sign lets you compare value to value, it is a logical operator and returns a boolean value TRUE or FALSE.

B3="North"

becomes

"North" = "North"

and returns TRUE.

#### Step 2 - Second condition

C3="Calgary")

becomes

"Quebec"="Calgary")

and returns FALSE.

#### Step 3 - Evaluate AND function

The AND function returns TRUE if all arguments are TRUE.

AND(B3="North", C3="Calgary")

becomes

AND(TRUE, FALSE)

and returns FALSE.

#### Step 4 - Evaluate IF function

The IF function returns one value if the logical test is TRUE and another value if the logical test is FALSE.

IF(logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])

IF(AND(B3="North", C3="Calgary"), "Match!", "")

becomes

IF(FALSE, "Match!", "")

and returns "".

## 7. AND function Conditional formatting

The image above shows two cells highlighted by the Conditional formatting formula applied to cell range B3:C8. The conditions are specified in cells E3:F3 respectively.

Both values in columns B and C are highlighted if they match the conditions, the example above shows cell B5:C5 highlighted, they match cells E3 and F3.

Conditional formatting formula in cell B3:

### 7.1 How to apply Conditional Formatting?

- Select cell range B3:C8.
- Go to tab "Home" on the ribbon.
- Press with the mouse on the "Conditional Formatting" button.

A popup menu appears. - Press on "New Rule...". A popup menu appears.

- Select "Use a formula to determine which cells to format".
- Paste the formula above to "Format values where this is true:".
- Press the OK button.

### 7.2 Explaining conditional formatting formula in cell B3

#### Step 1 - First condition

The equal sign lets you compare value to value, it is a logical operator and returns a boolean value TRUE or FALSE.

The dollar sign lets you lock the column or the row number. When the Conditional Formatting tool moves from cell to cell in cell range B3:C8 cell $B3 stays in column B, however, it may freely move to rows below.

$E$3=$B3

becomes

"East" = "North"

and returns FALSE.

#### Step 2 - Second condition

Reference $C3 is locked to column C.

$F$3=$C3

becomes

"Tokyo"="Santiago"

and returns FALSE.

#### Step 3 - Evaluate AND function

The AND function returns TRUE if all arguments are TRUE.

AND($E$3=$B3, $F$3=$C3)

becomes

AND(TRUE, TRUE)

and returns TRUE.

## 8. Get Excel *.xlsx file

## 9. IF function with AND function - multiple conditions

The AND function allows you to have multiple conditions in an IF function, you can have up to 254 arguments. An argument is an input value given to a function. You construct a logical expression that you use as an argument in the AND function.

### Table of Contents

- IF with AND function - two logical expressions
- IF with AND function - multiple pairs of logical expressions
- Using arrays in the AND function
- Get Excel file

### 9.1. IF with AND function - two logical expressions

Formula in cell D3:

### 9.1.1 Explaining formula in cell D3

The IF function above checks two conditions, the "Region" value must match a text string and the "Amount" value must be larger than a number. If both conditions return TRUE the AND function returns TRUE.

**IF ***REGION = value*** AND ***Amount > number*** then ***TRUE*** Else ***FALSE*

In other words, all logical tests in each argument in the AND function must return TRUE for the AND function to return TRUE. The AND function returns FALSE if at least one argument returns FALSE.

#### Step 1 - Check if value equals condition

The equal sign compares value to value, it returns a boolean value TRUE or FALSE.

B3="South America" becomes "North America"="South America" and returns FALSE.

#### Step 2 - Check if the number is greater than the condition

The larger than character lets you check if a value is larger than another value, it also returns a boolean value TRUE or FALSE.

C3>5

becomes

5>5

and returns FALSE. Five is not larger than five.

#### Step 3 - Evaluate AND function

The AND function returns a boolean value TRUE or FALSE if all arguments evaluate to TRUE or the numerical equivalent which is one.

AND(B3="South America", C3>5)

becomes

AND(FALSE, FALSE)

and returns FALSE.

#### Step 4 - Evaluate IF function

The IF function returns one value if the logical test is TRUE and another value if the logical test is FALSE.

IF(*logical_test*, [*value_if_true*], [*value_if_false*])

IF(AND(B3="South America", C3>5), TRUE, FALSE)

becomes

IF(FALSE, TRUE, FALSE)

and returns FALSE.

### 9.1.2 Alternative formula

You can shorten the formula somewhat by enclosing each logical expression with parentheses and then multiply the conditions.

Formula in cell D4:

#### Step 1 - Check the first condition

The first logical expression in cell B4 is (B4="South America") and it returns TRUE.

B4="South America"

becomes

"South America"="South America"

and returns TRUE.

#### Step 2 - Check the second condition

The second expression (C4>5) also returns TRUE.

C4>5

becomes

7>5

and returns TRUE.

#### Step 3 - Multiply boolean values

(B4="South America")*(C4>5)

becomes

TRUE * TRUE

equals 1. TRUE multiplied by TRUE is 1. TRUE is the same thing as 1 and FALSE is 0 (zero). If you multiply boolean values the outcome is always 0 (zero) or 1.

#### Step 4 - Evaluate IF function

IF(*logical_test*, [*value_if_true*], [*value_if_false*])

IF((B4="South America")*(C4>5), TRUE, FALSE)

becomes

IF(TRUE, TRUE, FALSE)

and returns TRUE.

### 9.2. IF with AND function - multiple pairs of criteria

The formula in cell D3 checks if any of the criteria pairs in cell range F4:G6 matches cell B3 and C3 respectively.

Formula in cell D3:

### 9.2.1 Explaining formula in cell D3

#### Step 1 - Check multiple conditions

The COUNTIFS function calculates the number of cells across multiple ranges that equals all given conditions.

It allows you to use up to 254 arguments or 127 criteria pairs.

Excel Function Syntax

COUNTIFS(criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2]…)

COUNTIFS($F$4:$F$6,B3,$G$4:$G$6,C3) returns 0 (zero).

#### Step 2 - Evaluate IF function

IF(*logical_test*, [*value_if_true*], [*value_if_false*])

IF(COUNTIFS($F$4:$F$6,B3,$G$4:$G$6,C3), TRUE, FALSE)

returns FALSE in cell D3. 0 (zero) is the numerical equivalent to FALSE.

Cell D4 returns TRUE, both cells B4 and C4 match cells F4 and G4.

### 9.3. Using arrays in the AND function

The array formula above lets you check if all values in cell range B3;B5 are not empty and if all numbers in C3:C5 are above 0 (zero). It returns TRUE if all conditions are TRUE.

Formula in cell B8:

There are many conditions in the above formula and the array formula lets you do this without problems.

To enter an array formula press and hold CTRL + SHIFT simultaneously, then press Enter once. Release all keys.

The formula bar now shows the formula enclosed with curly brackets telling you that you entered the formula successfully. Don't enter the curly brackets yourself.

### 3.1 Explaining formula in cell B8

#### Step 1 - Check if all values in the array are non-empty

The less than and larger than characters combined lets you check if a value is not equal to another value. The result is a boolean value TRUE or FALSE.

This can be performed to an array of values as well, it returns as many boolean values as there are values in the array.

B3:B5<>""

becomes

{"South America";"Asia";"Middle east"}<>""

and returns {TRUE; TRUE; TRUE}. All values in the cell range are not equal to nothing "".

#### Step 2 - Check if values are larger than zero

The larger than character lets you check if a value is larger than another value, it also returns a boolean value TRUE or FALSE.

C3:C5>0

becomes

{5; 7; 6}>0

and returns {TRUE; TRUE; TRUE}.

#### Step 3 - Check if all values are TRUE

The AND function returns a boolean value TRUE or FALSE if all arguments evaluate to TRUE or the numerical equivalent which is one.

AND(B3:B5<>"",C3:C5>0)

becomes

AND({TRUE; TRUE; TRUE}, {TRUE; TRUE; TRUE})

and returns TRUE.

#### Step 4 - Evaluate IF function

IF(*logical_test*, [*value_if_true*], [*value_if_false*])

IF(AND(B3:B5<>"",C3:C5>0), TRUE, FALSE)

becomes

IF(TRUE, TRUE, FALSE)

and returns TRUE.

### 9.4. Get Excel *.xlsx file

### 'AND' function examples

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### Functions in 'Logical' category

The AND function function is one of 16 functions in the 'Logical' category.

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