VLOOKUP in a filtered Excel Table and return multiple values
This post describes how to search filtered values in an Excel defined Table using a condition given in cell 12 and return multiple values. Some rows are hidden because of Excel Table filters, I am not using the VLOOKUP function in this formula.
Array Formula in cell B15:
How to create an array formula

Copy (Ctrl + c) and paste (Ctrl + v) array formula into formula bar.
 Press and hold Ctrl + Shift.
 Press Enter once.
 Release all keys.
Filter table
Let's remove all A's from item column. Click black arrow near Item header. Deselect A. Click OK.
Explaining formula in cell B15
Step 1  Create array
This step is necessary in order to be able to use the SUBTOTAL function in the next step. The ROW function returns row numbers based on a cell reference.
The MATCH function converts the row number array to an array that starts with 1.
OFFSET(Table1[Number], MATCH(ROW(Table1[Number]), ROW(Table1[Number]))1, 0, 1)
becomes
OFFSET(Table1[Number], MATCH({3;4;5;6;7;8;9;10}, {3;4;5;6;7;8;9;10})1, 0, 1)
becomes
OFFSET(Table1[Number], {1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8}  1, 0, 1)
becomes
OFFSET(Table1[Number], {0;1;2;3;4;5;6;7}, 0, 1)
becomes
OFFSET({2; 1; 2; 1; 2; 1; 2}, {0;1;2;3;4;5;6;7}, 0, 1)
and returns
{2; 1; 2; 1; 2; 1; 2}.
Step 2  Which values are shown in the Filtered Excel table
The SUBTOTAL(103, array) counts the number of values that are not empty.
SUBTOTAL(103, OFFSET(Table1[Number], MATCH(ROW(Table1[Number]), ROW(Table1[Number]))1, 0, 1))
becomes
SUBTOTAL(103, {2; 1; 2; 1; 2; 1; 2})
and returns
{0; 1; 1; 0; 1; 1; 0; 1}
This array may look weird, the array in the SUBTOTAL function has 7 values and the result array has 8 values, how is it possible? This is, however, what you get if you convert the functions to constants by selecting them using and then pressing F9.
If you examine the formula using the "Evaluate Formula" tool you get the following array: {#VALUE!; #VALUE!; #VALUE!; #VALUE!; #VALUE!; #VALUE!; #VALUE!; #VALUE!}
Even more confusing. This is what I think is going on. The OFFSET function actually returns an array of arrays, like this { {2}; {1}; {2}; {1}; {2}; {1}; {2} }
Then the SUBTOTAL function returns an array that indicates if the value is shown in the filtered table or not. 0 (zero) means not shown and 1 is visible.
{0; 1; 1; 0; 1; 1; 0; 1} meaning row 3, 6 and 9 are hidden in the filtered table.
Step 3  Convert array to actual values
The IF function has three arguments, the first one must be a logical expression. If the expression evaluates to TRUE then one thing happens (argument 2) and if FALSE another thing happens (argument 3).
IF(SUBTOTAL(103, OFFSET(Table1[Number], MATCH(ROW(Table1[Number]), ROW(Table1[Number]))1, 0, 1)), Table1[Number])
becomes
IF({0; 1; 1; 0; 1; 1; 0; 1}, Table1[Number])
and returns
{FALSE; 2; 1; FALSE; 1; 2; FALSE; 2}
Step 4  Match values to condition specified in cell C12
IF($C$12=(IF(SUBTOTAL(103, OFFSET(Table1[Number], MATCH(ROW(Table1[Number]), ROW(Table1[Number]))1, 0, 1)), Table1[Number])), MATCH(ROW(Table1[Number]), ROW(Table1[Number])), "")
becomes
IF({FALSE; 2; 1; FALSE; 1; 2; FALSE; 2}, MATCH(ROW(Table1[Number]), ROW(Table1[Number])), "")
becomes
IF({FALSE; 2; 1; FALSE; 1; 2; FALSE; 2}, {1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8}, "")
and returns
{""; ""; 3; ""; 5; ""; ""; ""}
Step 5  Extract kth smallest row number
To be able to return a new value in a cell each I use the SMALL function to extract row numbers from smallest to largest.
The ROWS function keeps track of the numbers based on an expanding cell reference. It will expand as the formula is copied to the cells below.
SMALL(IF($C$12=(IF(SUBTOTAL(103, OFFSET(Table1[Number], MATCH(ROW(Table1[Number]), ROW(Table1[Number]))1, 0, 1)), Table1[Number])), MATCH(ROW(Table1[Number]), ROW(Table1[Number])), ""), ROWS($A$1:A1))
becomes
SMALL({""; ""; 3; ""; 5; ""; ""; ""}, ROWS($A$1:A1))
becomes
SMALL({""; ""; 3; ""; 5; ""; ""; ""}, 1)
and returns 3.
Step 6  Return value based on row number
The INDEX function returns a value based on a cell reference and column/row numbers.
INDEX(Table1[Result], SMALL(IF($C$12=(IF(SUBTOTAL(103, OFFSET(Table1[Number], MATCH(ROW(Table1[Number]), ROW(Table1[Number]))1, 0, 1)), Table1[Number])), MATCH(ROW(Table1[Number]), ROW(Table1[Number])), ""), ROWS($A$1:A1)))
becomes
INDEX(Table1[Result], 3)
becomes
INDEX({"A10"; "A20"; "A30"; "A40"; "A50"; "A60"; "A70"; "A80"}, 3)
and returns A30 in cell B15.
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