How to use the LOWER function
The LOWER function converts a value to lower case letters.
Formula in cell C3:
Table of Contents

 LOWER Function Syntax
 LOWER Function Arguments
 LOWER Function not working
 Change upper letter to lower letter for the position of a given character
 Change a given upper letter to a letter
 Change all upper letters to lower letters for a given character
 Convert every other letter to upper or lower case
 Get Excel *.xlsx file
1. Lower Function Syntax
LOWER(text)
2. LOWER Function Arguments
text  Required. The value you want in lower case letters. 
3. LOWER Function not working
 Check your spelling. Select the cell with the mouse and look for spelling errors in the formula bar.
 Check the number of arguments you use, the UPPER function accepts only one argument. You can, however, use a cell range containing multiple values. You need to enter the formula as an array formula unless you are a Excel 365 user.
4. Change upper letter to lower letter based on the position
The image above shows a formula that substitutes the third letter with a lower case letter.
Formula in cell C3:
4.1 Explaining formula
Step 1  Extract letter based on position
The MID function returns a substring from a string based on the starting position and the number of characters you want to extract.
MID(text, start_num, num_chars)
MID(B3, 3, 1)
becomes
MID("ORANGES", 3, 1)
and returns "A".
Step 2  Convert to upper letter
The LOWER function converts a string to lower letters.
LOWER(value)
LOWER(MID(B3, 3, 1))
becomes
LOWER("A")
and returns "a".
Step 3  Replace character based on position to an upper letter
The REPLACE function substitutes a string based on character position and length.
REPLACE(old_text, start_num, num_chars, new_text)
REPLACE(B3, 3, 1, LOWER(MID(B3, 3, 1)))
becomes
REPLACE(B3, 3, 1, "a")
becomes
REPLACE("ORANGES", 3, 1, "a")
and returns "ORaNGES".
5. Change a given upper letter to a lower letter
The formula in cell C3 demonstrated in the image above converts the second upper case "P" counted from the right with a lower case "p".
Formula in cell C3:
5.1 Explaining formula
The SUBSTITUTE function substitutes a string with another string.
SUBSTITUTE(text, old_text, new_text, [instance_num])
SUBSTITUTE(B3, "P", "p", 2)
The first argument is a cell reference to cell B3, the second argument is the string to be replaced.
The third argument is what will be there after the substitution and the fourth argument is a number representing the instance.
6. Change all upper letters to lower letters for a given character
The picture above shows a formula in cell C3 that converts all upper case "P" to a lower case "p" in cell B3.
Formula in cell C3:
The SUBSTITUTE function substitutes a string with another string.
SUBSTITUTE(text, old_text, new_text, [instance_num])
If the instance_num argument is omitted all instances are replaced.
7. Convert every other letter to upper and lower case
Excel 365 formula in cell C3:
=LET(x, SEQUENCE(LEN(B3)), TEXTJOIN(, TRUE, IF(ISODD(x), MID(UPPER(B3), x, 1), MID(LOWER(B3), x, 1))))
7.1 Explaining Excel 365 formula
=TEXTJOIN(,TRUE,IF(ISODD(SEQUENCE(LEN(B3))),MID(UPPER(B3),SEQUENCE(LEN(B3)),1),MID(LOWER(B3),SEQUENCE(LEN(B3)),1)))
Step 1  Count charcaters
The LEN function counts the number of characters.
LEN(value)
LEN(B3)
becomes
LEN("Hello World!")
and returns 12. "Hello World!" has twelve characters not counting the doublequotes.
Step 2  Create a sequence of numbers from 1 to n
The SEQUENCE function creates a sequence of numbers.
SEQUENCE(rows, [columns], [start], [step])
SEQUENCE(LEN(B3))
becomes
SEQUENCE(12)
and returns
{1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12}.
Step 3  Convert string to capital letters
The UPPER function converts a value to upper case letters.
UPPER(value)
UPPER(B3)
becomes
UPPER("Hello World!")
and returns "HELLO WORLD!".
Step 4  Create an array containing each character (upper case)
The MID function returns a substring from a string based on the starting position and the number of characters you want to extract.
MID(text, start_num, num_chars)
MID(UPPER(B3),SEQUENCE(LEN(B3)),1)
becomes
MID("HELLO WORLD!",{1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12},1)
and returns
{"H"; "E"; "L"; "L"; "O"; " "; "W"; "O"; "R"; "L"; "D"; "!"}.
Step 5  Create an array containing each character (lower case)
MID(LOWER(B3),SEQUENCE(LEN(B3)),1))
becomes
MID("hello world!",{1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12},1)
and returns
{"h"; "e"; "l"; "l"; "o"; " "; "w"; "o"; "r"; "l"; "d"; "!"}.
Step 6  Identify odd numbers
The ISODD function returns TRUE if a number is odd.
ISODD(number)
ISODD(SEQUENCE(LEN(B3)))
becomes
ISODD({1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12})
and returns
{TRUE; FALSE; TRUE; FALSE; TRUE; FALSE; TRUE; FALSE; TRUE; FALSE; TRUE; FALSE}.
Step 7  Replace every other character
The IF function returns one value if the logical test is TRUE and another value if the logical test is FALSE.
IF(logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])
IF(ISODD(SEQUENCE(LEN(B3))), MID(UPPER(B3), SEQUENCE(LEN(B3)), 1), MID(LOWER(B3), SEQUENCE(LEN(B3)), 1))
becomes
IF({TRUE; FALSE; TRUE; FALSE; TRUE; FALSE; TRUE; FALSE; TRUE; FALSE; TRUE; FALSE}, {"H"; "E"; "L"; "L"; "O"; " "; "W"; "O"; "R"; "L"; "D"; "!"}, {"h"; "e"; "l"; "l"; "o"; " "; "w"; "o"; "r"; "l"; "d"; "!"})
and returns
{"H"; "e"; "L"; "l"; "O"; " "; "W"; "o"; "R"; "l"; "D"; "!"}
Step 8  Concatenate characters
The TEXTJOIN function combines text strings from multiple cell ranges and also use delimiting characters if you want.
TEXTJOIN(delimiter, ignore_empty, text1, [text2], ...)
TEXTJOIN(,TRUE,IF(ISODD(SEQUENCE(LEN(B3))), MID(UPPER(B3), SEQUENCE(LEN(B3)), 1), MID(LOWER(B3), SEQUENCE(LEN(B3)), 1)))
becomes
TEXTJOIN(,TRUE,{"H"; "e"; "L"; "l"; "O"; " "; "W"; "o"; "R"; "l"; "D"; "!"})
and returns "HeLlO WoRlD!".
Step 9  Shorten formula
The LET function lets you name intermediate calculation results which can shorten formulas considerably and improve performance.
LET(name1, name_value1, calculation_or_name2, [name_value2, calculation_or_name3...])
SEQUENCE(LEN(B3)) is repeated three times in the formula, lets name this part of the formula x.
LET(x, SEQUENCE(LEN(B3)), TEXTJOIN(, TRUE, IF(ISODD(x), MID(UPPER(B3), x, 1), MID(LOWER(B3), x, 1))))
Functions in this article
Functions in 'Text' category
The LOWER function function is one of many functions in the 'Text' category.
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