## How to use the TEXT function

This article demonstrates how to use the TEXT function in great detail. The formula in cell D3 formats the number in cell B3 based on the formatting text in cell C3 and returns the result to cell D3.

Formula in cell D3:

=TEXT(B3,C3)

The formatting text lets you format numbers as you prefer, 0,000 formats numbers by inserting a comma after every third digit. You have a plethora of formatting characters you can use all described below.

### Excel function syntax

TEXT(*value*, *format_text*)

Converts a value to text in a specific number format.

### Arguments

value |
The string you want to format. You can use a cell reference here or use a text string. |

format_text |
Formatting code allowing you to change the way, for example, a date or a number is displayed to the Excel user. |

### Table of Contents

- How to create your own custom formatting - TEXT function
- Formatting codes you can use in the TEXT function
- How to insert 0 (zeros) to the right of the decimal point
- How to separate digits by a comma
- How to add 0 (zeros) to the right and left of the decimal point
- Hashtag character lets you hide extra zeros
- How to align numbers by decmial point - ? (question mark character)
- How to format a number as a percentage - % character
- How to format number as a scientific form - E scientific format
- How to use text in the TEXT function - @ at character
- " quotation mark
- Date formats
- Time formats
- Why isn't the TEXT function working?

- Number formatting
- How to hide specific values - TEXT function
- Custom groups
- Fractions
- Phone numbers
- Indents
- Singular / Plural
- Get Excel file

## 1. How to create your own custom formatting - TEXT function

The TEXT function lets you easily create your own custom formats, there are four parts shown in the picture below.

You can use the semicolon to separate different settings for different values, the zero is a character symbol (among others) for digits and the @ is a character symbol for text values.

- Positive values
- Negative values
- Zero values
- Text values

The format_ text argument is 0;-0;0;@ Positive numbers are returned positive, no change.

Formula in cell D3:

The format_text argument is specified in cell C3 in this example, however, you can type it in the second argument as well. Like this:

You can ignore the semicolons if you want to format all values equally.

### 1.1 How to convert negative numbers to positive numbers?

The image above shows you a negative number in cell B4, the formula in cell C4 removes the sign.

The second container lets you format negative numbers, this means that you can use the TEXT function to remove the minus sign from negative numbers.

**0**;0;@")

The bolded zero in the formula above shows the container for negative numbers. The minus sign is removed, negative numbers are converted to positive numbers.

### 1.2 How to convert positive numbers to negative numbers?

The picture above demonstrates a formula in cell C4 that converts positive numbers to negative numbers.

**-0**;-0;0;@")

The first container in the formula above (bolded) lets you format positive numbers, the minus sign formats positive numbers as negative numbers.

### 1.3 How to change positive numbers to negative numbers and vice versa?

The image above shows the TEXT function in cell C4, it changes positive numbers to negative and negative numbers to positive.

**-0**;

**0**;0;@")

The first and second container (bolded) formats numbers as explained above. You can also multiply the number with -1, like this:

This is a lot easier than using the TEXT function. The asterisk multiples the number in cell B3 with -1 which changes the sign, in other words, positive numbers become negative and vice versa.

## 2. Formatting codes you can use

Note that you cant perform arithmetic operations to a value the TEXDT function has calculated. Excel handles these values as text values even if all value characters are digits.

### 2.1 How to insert 0 zeros to the right of the decimal point

The decimal point lets you round numbers, it also inserts additional decimals even if it is not needed.

Formula in cell D9:

The format_text argument is 0.00. This adds additional zeros to the right of the decimal point, even if they are not needed.

For example, 6 becomes 6.00. I will show you below how to round numbers, follow the link to get to the section below.

### 2.2 How to separate digits by a comma

The comma lets you separate numbers into any number of digits. The example above shows how to separate every three digits with a comma. This makes large numbers easier to read.

Formula in cell D3:

The format_text argument is "0,000", this separates text with a comma every third digit.

### 2.3 How to add 0 (zeros) to the right and left of the decimal point

The image above shows different formatting patterns using the 0 (zero) character. It allows you to add 0 (zeros) before and after the decimal point.

Formula in cell D3:

The format_text argument is "000", this returns a number with leading zeros if the number is smaller than 100.

*How to type multiple zeros in one cell?*

This is not working for me, Excel shortens the digits to only a single 0 (zero).Type the zeros like this: '000

Then press Enter.

### 2.4 Hashtag character lets you hide extra zeros

The image above shows how to use hashtags in the TEXt function. The hashtag is a digit symbol and 0's (zeros) to the left of the decimal point is not shown.

Formula in cell D3:

### 2.5 How to align numbers by the decimal point

The image above shows what happens if you use the ? (question mark) as a placeholder in the TEXT function. It aligns numbers based on the decimal point and hides 0's (zeros) if possible.

Formula in cell D3:

You can also use the ? (question mark) to create fractions based on a decimal number.

### 2.6 How to create a percentage

The picture above demonstrates how to format numbers as percentages.

Formula in cell D3:

The decimal point and the 0 (zero) lets you format the percentage number.

### 2.7 How to format a number using the Scientific notation

The image shows how to format numbers using the scientific format. It allows you to show very large numbers (many digits) or very small numbers in a decimal form.

Formula in cell D3:

**E+ E- e+ e-** - Scientific format.

E or e represents "value times ten raised to the power of". Superscripted exponents can be shown in Excel but not as a result of a formula. As far as I know, you need to format the output to create a superscripted exponent.

Number |
Scientific format | x^n |

2 |
2E+0 | 2*10^0 |

200 |
2E+2 | 2*10^2 |

0.2 |
2E-1 | 2*10^-1 |

0.02 |
2E-2 | 2*10^-2 |

0.002 |
2E-3 | 2*10^-3 |

### 2.8 How to use text in the TEXT function - @ At character

The image above shows how to use the "at" character with text values in the TEXT function.

Formula in cell D3:

=TEXT(B3, "@ car")

The at character is a placeholder for text values, in this case, the text value in cell B3. @ = "one", "@ car" becomes "one car" in cell D3.

**@** - Text characters

### 2.9 How to work with text and numbers in the TEXT function

Formula in cell D3:

=TEXT(B3, 0 " cars")

**"Text"** - Characters enclosed by quotation marks show the characters and digits.

### 2.10 Date formats

The image above demonstrates how to work with dates using the TEXT function.

Placeholder |
Source date |
Result |
Description |

m |
1-13-2017 | 1 | Extracts month as a number without a leading zero. |

mm |
1-13-2017 | 01 | Extracts month as a number with a leading zero. |

mmm |
1-13-2017 | Jan | Extracts month as a three-letter abbreviation. |

mmmm |
1-13-2017 | January | Extracts full month name. |

d |
11-3-2017 | 3 | Extracts day as a number without a leading zero. |

dd |
11-3-2017 | 03 | Extracts day as a number with a leading zero. |

ddd |
11-13-2017 | Mon | Extracts weekday name as a three-letter abbreviation. |

dddd |
11-13-2017 | Monday | Extracts full weekday name. |

yy |
11-3-2017 | 17 | Extracts year as a two-digit number. |

yyyy |
11-3-2017 | 2017 | Extracts full year. |

#### 2.10.1 How to extract the month number without a leading zero?

The image above shows how to extract the month number without a leading zero using the TEXT function, the source date is in cell B3.

1 - January

2 - February

3 - March

4 - April

5 - May

6 - June

7 - July

8 - August

9 - September

10 - October

11 - November

12- December

Formula in cell C3:

=TEXT(B3, "m")

**m** - Month number without a leading zero

#### 2.10.2 How to extract the month number with a leading zero?

The image above shows how to extract the month number with a leading zero using the TEXT function, the source date is in cell B3.

01 - January

02 - February

03 - March

04 - April

05 - May

06 - June

07 - July

08 - August

09 - September

10 - October

11 - November

12- December

Formula in cell C3:

=TEXT(B3, "mm")

**mm** - Month number with a leading zero

#### 2.10.3 How to extract the month as a three-letter abbreviation?

**mmm** - Month as an abbreviation, Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov and Dec.

#### 2.10.4 How to extract the full month from a date?

**mmmm** - Full month name.

#### 2.10.5 How to extract the day as a number without a leading zero from a date?

**d**- Day as a number without a leading zero

#### 2.10.6 How to extract the day as a number with a leading zero from a date?

**dd** - Day as a number with a leading zero when necessary

#### 2.10.6 How to extract the weekday as a three-letter abbreviation from a date?

**ddd** - Day as an abbreviation, Sun, Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri and Sat.

#### 2.10.6 How to extract the full weekday name from a date?

**dddd** - Full day name.

#### 2.10.6 How to extract the year as a two-digit number from a date?

**yy** - Year as a two-digit number.

#### 2.10.6 How to extract the full year from a date?

**yyyy** - Year as a four-digit number.

### 2.11 Time formats

**h** - Hour as a digit without a leading zero.

**[h]** - Shows more than 24 hours.

**hh** - Hour as a digit with a leading zero when needed.

**m** - Minute without a leading zero.

**[m]** - Shows more than 60 minutes.

**mm** - Minute with a leading zero when necessary.

**s** - Second without a leading zero.

**[s]** - Shows more than 60 seconds.

**ss** - Seconds with a leading zero when necessary.

**AM/PM** - Shows the time of 12-hour hours.

**am/pm** - See above.

**A/P** - See above.

**a/p** - See above.

The image above demonstrates how to work with time values using the TEXT function.

Placeholder |
Source date |
Result |
Description |

h |
9:15:04 AM | 9 | Hour as a digit without a leading zero. |

[h] |
1-13-2017 | 01 | Extracts month as a number with a leading zero. |

hh |
1-13-2017 | Jan | Extracts month as a three-letter abbreviation. |

m |
1-13-2017 | January | Extracts full month name. |

[m] |
11-3-2017 | 3 | Extracts day as a number without a leading zero. |

mm |
11-3-2017 | 03 | Extracts day as a number with a leading zero. |

s |
11-13-2017 | Mon | Extracts weekday name as a three-letter abbreviation. |

[s] |
11-13-2017 | Monday | Extracts full weekday name. |

ss |
11-3-2017 | 17 | Extracts year as a two-digit number. |

AM/PM |
11-3-2017 | 2017 | Shows the time of 12-hour hours. |

am/pm |
11-3-2017 | 2017 | See above. |

A/P |
11-3-2017 | 2017 | See above. |

a/p |
11-3-2017 | 2017 | See above. |

### 2.12 Why isn't the TEXT function working?

The TEXT function returns a #VALUE! error if you have a placeholder character in the second argument, see example formula in cells C3 and C4 above. Use the backslash to escape placeholder characters.

Formula in cell D3:

=TEXT(B3, "0 m")

Character m is a placeholder character for a month number, however, we want to use it as the abbreviation for the meter (metric system) in the example above in cell C3. The formula returns a #VALUE! error.

Cell C4 has a backslash character before the m character.

**Note!** Check your regional settings if the format codes above don't work for you. Win 10 users can open the Control Panel and then press with left mouse button on "Regional settings" to view your settings.

## 3. Numbers formatting

### 3.1 How to round numbers - TEXT function

The number of digit symbols you use after the decimal determines which number you want to round.

You can round to thousands and millions and so on using the comma character.

### 3.2 Number formatting - thousands and millions

The comma symbol scales the number by a thousand, two comma symbols scale the number by a million (1000 * 1000 = 1,000,000).

K = 1,000 and M = 1,000,000

The \ (backslash) symbol escapes the M character so Excel displays the letter M instead of converting the number into minutes.

### 3.3 Show leading zeros

The 0 (zero) symbol allows you to show leading zeros.

### 3.4 Format positive, negative and zero values differently

The semicolon character lets you specify formatting code for positive, negative, zero values and text values. The picture below shows you these settings: 0.0;-0.00;"Zero";@

The first position is formatting code for positive values, here I have chosen 0.0. All positive values are rounded to one decimal.

The second position is affecting negative values, in this case, all negative values are rounded to two decimals.

The third position changes 0 to Zero and the fourth position shows the text value.

## 4. Hide values using the TEXT function

### 4.1 How to hide positive numbers

Positive values are hidden if you leave out the first position.

### 4.2 How to hide negative numbers

Negative values are hidden if you leave the second position empty.

### 4.3 How to hide zeros

If you leave the third position empty zeros are hidden.

### 4.4 How to hide text values

Omit the fourth position to hide text values.

## 5. Custom groups

Group 3 is assigned to values larger than 150, Group 2 is assigned to values larger than 100, Group 1 is assigned to all other values.

## 6. Fractions

The division symbol lets you create fractions.

## 7. Phone numbers

The 0 (zero) symbol lets you create phone numbers with leading 0's.

## 8. Indents

Use the underscore character _ and then the character you want to use as an indent. The character is not shown.

The example below uses - (minus) as the indent character in the first position (positive numbers) to align negative and positive numbers. The first row is not aligned.

## 9. Singular / Plural

## 10. Excel *.xlsx file

### Articles with the 'TEXT' Function

The following 4 articles have formulas that contain the TEXT function.

Count a specific weekday in a date range

NETWORKDAYS function returns the number of whole workdays between two dates, however the array formula I am going to demonstrate […]

I will demonstrate three different techniques to build monthly date ranges in this article. Two of these techniques are easy because they […]

I will demonstrate three different methods to build quarterly date ranges in this article. The two first methods have a […]

How to convert radians to fractions of pi

The formula in cell D3 converts the radian decimal value to fractions of pi. Formula in cell D3: =TEXT(C3/PI(),"?/?")&"*"&CHAR(182) Explaining […]

### Functions in 'Text'

The TEXT function function is one of many functions in the 'Text' category.

The ASC function converts full-width (double-byte) characters to half-width (single-byte) characters. This function is for double-byte character set (DBCS) languages. […]

Use CHAR function to convert a number to the corresponding character. This is determined by your computers character set. Windows ANSI […]

The CLEAN function deletes nonprintable characters in a value, more specifically, it is designed to delete the first 32 nonprinting […]

The CODE function returns a specific number for the first character of the text argument, determined by your computers character set. […]

How to use the CONCAT function

The CONCAT function concatenates values from multiple cells. There is, however, no delimiting character or a way to ignore empty […]

How to use the CONCATENATE function

The CONCATENATE function lets you add text strings into one single text string. The function has been replaced by the […]

The EXACT function allows you to check if two values are precisely the same, it returns TRUE or FALSE. The […]

The FIND function returns the position of a specific string in another string, reading left to right. Note, the FIND function […]

The FIXED function rounds a number to the specified number of decimals, formats the number in decimal format using a […]

The LEFT function extracts a specific number of characters always starting from the left. Excel Function Syntax LEFT(text, [num_chars]) Arguments […]

The LEN function returns the number of characters in a cell value. Formula in cell D3: =LEN(B3) Cell B7 contains […]

The LOWER function converts a value to lower case letters. Formula in cell C3: =LOWER(B3) Excel Function Syntax LOWER(text) Arguments […]

The MID function returns a substring from a string based on the starting position and the number of characters you want […]

The REPT function repeats a specific text a chosen number of times. Formula in cell D3: =REPT(B3,C3) Excel Function Syntax […]

The RIGHT function extracts a specific number of characters always starting from the right. Excel Function Syntax RIGHT(text,[num_chars]) Arguments text […]

How to use the SEARCH function

Returns a number representing the position a substring is, if found in a textstring. FIND is case sensitive and SEARCH is not.

How to use the SUBSTITUTE function

The SUBSTITUTE function replaces a specific text string in a value. Case sensitive. Formula in cell E3: =SUBSTITUTE(B3,C3,D3) Excel Function […]

The T function returns a text value if the argument is a text value. Formula in cell C3: =T(B3) The […]

This article demonstrates how to use the TEXT function in great detail. The formula in cell D3 formats the number […]

How to use the TEXTJOIN function

The TEXTJOIN function is a relatively new function introduced in Excel 2019, it is like the CONCATENATE function on steroids […]

The picture above shows you values that have multiple leading and trailing blanks, sometimes also between words. The TRIM function […]

How to use the UNICHAR function

Use the UNICHAR function to calculate a character based on a number. Excel Function Syntax UNICHAR(number) Arguments number Required. The […]

How to use the UNICODE function

Use the UNICODE function to return a Unicode number based on a character. Excel Function Syntax UNICHAR(text) Arguments text Required. […]

Converts a value to upper case letters. Formula in cell C3: =UPPER(B3) Excel Function Syntax UPPER(text) Arguments text Value to convert. Required. Excel […]

Converts a text string that represents a number to a number. This function is included for compatibility with other software. […]

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