How to use the Subtotal tool
What's on this page
The Subtotal feature lets you insert totals and grand totals automatically, this feature was added to Excel 2010 and is still around in later Excel versions. The image above demonstrates the Subtotal tool applied to cell range B2:E30.
The + and minus signs to the left of the row numbers let you expand and collapse rows respectively. This functionality lets you easily examine the values behind a specific subtotal that may interest you more than the others.
Prepare data
Before you can use the Subtotal tool you need to prepare your data:
 Remove blank rows.
 Sort the data based on the column or columns you want to add subtotals to.
How to sort data
 Rightclick on any cell in your data set. A popup menu appears, see image above.
 Click on "Sort".
 Click "Custom Sort...", a dialog box appears.
 Sort by "Salesperson"
 Add a Level
 Then by "Region"
 Click OK button.
The image above shows the data set sorted based on column B and then on column C.
Note, you can't insert subtotals to an Excel Table. This will grey out the "Subtotal" button.
I recommend a Pivot Table if you want the functionality that the Excel Table has and the Subtotal feature.
How to start the Subtotal tool?
Go to tab "Data" on the ribbon, click the "Subtotal" button. A dialog box appears, see image above.
Disable the "Data Bars" checkbox and enable the "Sales" check box. Click the OK button to apply settings and create subtotals.
The image above demonstrates subtotals in cell D11 and D20 created by the Subtotal tool. The formula bar shows that the Subtotal tool inserted SUBTOTAL functions in both cell D11 and D20.
The SUBTOTAL function has many arguments which I won't be demonstrating in this article, check out the SUBTOTAL function article if you want to learn more about them.
Click symbol to collapse rows and click symbol to expand rows. You can also expand or collapse all rows on a hierarchy level by pressing 1, 2 or 3:
These buttons are located to the left of the row numbers, see the image above or the animated image below.
Subtotals on multiple levels
You can add more subtotals to your data list. We inserted subtotals before when a change occurred in column Salesperson, let's add a new subtotal for each change in column Region.
 Select cell range A1:C20
 Click "Subtotal" button on tab "Data"
 Click the dropdown menu below the "At each change in:"
 Select Region
 Clear checkbox "Replace current subtotals"
 Click OK button.
Dialog box settings
At each change in
The first dropdown list lets you choose which column to use when determining where to insert subtotals to. When a value changes a new subtotal is inserted, this is why it is important to sort the values first.
Use function
The dialog box allows you to pick one function out of eleven functions, they are:

Sum  Calculates a total.
Formula in cell D11:=SUBTOTAL(9,D3:D10)Number 9 represents the SUM function, it adds numbers and returns a total.
97496 + 33568 + 90964 + 24088 + 98629 + 72498 + 89764 + 14867 = 521874 
Count  Counts the number of cells that are not empty.
Formula in cell D11:=SUBTOTAL(3,D3:D10)The first argument is 3 which represents the COUNTA function, it counts all cells that are not empty.
There are eight cells in cell range D3:D10 and they all nonempty. The formula returns 8 in cell D11. 
Average  Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the arguments.
Formula in cell D11:=SUBTOTAL(1,D3:D10)The first argument is 1, it represents the AVERAGE function. It adds all numbers and then divides by the total count of values.
97496 + 33568 + 90964 + 24088 + 98629 + 72498 + 89764 + 14867 = 521874
521874/8 = 65234.25 
Max  Returns the largest number
Formula in cell D11:=SUBTOTAL(4, D3:D10)Cell range D3:D10 contains the following values: 97496, 33568, 90964, 24088, 98629, 72498, 89764 and 14867.
98629 is the largest one. 
Min  Returns the smallest number
Formula in cell D11:=SUBTOTAL(5, D3:D10)Cell range D3:D10 contains the following values: 97496, 33568, 90964, 24088, 98629, 72498, 89764 and 14867.
14867 is the smallest number. 
Product  Multiplies numbers in cell range
Formula in cell D11:=SUBTOTAL(6, D3:D10)Cell range D3:D10 contains the following values: 97496, 33568, 90964, 24088, 98629, 72498, 89764 and 14867.
97496 * 33568 * 90964 * 24088 * 98629 * 72498 * 89764 * 14867 = 6.8428772708558E+37 
Count numbers  Count the number of cells that contain numbers
Formula in cell D11:=SUBTOTAL(2, D3:D10)There are eight cells in cell range D3:D10 and they all are numbers. The formula returns 8 in cell D11.

StdDev Calculates the standard deviation based on a sample of the entire population.
Formula in cell D11:
=SUBTOTAL(7, D3:D10)The first argument is 7 which represents the STDEV.S function, it was added to Excel 2010. The STDEV.S function returns the standard deviation based on a sample of the entire population.
The standard deviation shows how much the values differ from the mean value of the group, in other words, how they are distributed around the average value, or how spread out the numbers are.
x ̅ is the average.
n is how many values.97496+33568+90964+24088+98629+72498+89764+14867 = 521874
521874/8 = 65234.25 is the average number.(9749665234.25)^2 + (3356865234.25)^2 + (9096465234.25)^2 + (2408865234.25)^2 + (9862965234.25)^2 + (7249865234.25)^2 + (8976465234.25)^2 + (1486765234.25)^2
becomes
32261.75^2 + (31666.25)^2 + 25729.75^2 + (41146.25)^2 + 33394.75^2 + 7263.75^2 + 24529.75^2 + (50367.25)^2
becomes
1040820513.0625 + 1002751389.0625 + 662020035.0625 + 1693013889.0625 + 1115209327.5625 + 52762064.0625 + 601708635.0625 +2536859872.5625
equals 8705145725.5.
8705145725.5/(81) = 1243592246.5
1243592246.5^(1/2) = 35264.6033084168

StdDevp  calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population
Formula in cell D11:=SUBTOTAL(8, D3:D10)The STDEV.P function returns the standard deviation based on the entire population.
x ̅ is the average.
n is how many values.97496+33568+90964+24088+98629+72498+89764+14867 = 521874
521874/8 = 65234.25 is the average number.(9749665234.25)^2 + (3356865234.25)^2 + (9096465234.25)^2 + (2408865234.25)^2 + (9862965234.25)^2 + (7249865234.25)^2 + (8976465234.25)^2 + (1486765234.25)^2
becomes
32261.75^2 + (31666.25)^2 + 25729.75^2 + (41146.25)^2 + 33394.75^2 + 7263.75^2 + 24529.75^2 + (50367.25)^2
becomes
1040820513.0625 + 1002751389.0625 + 662020035.0625 + 1693013889.0625 + 1115209327.5625 + 52762064.0625 + 601708635.0625 +2536859872.5625
equals 8705145725.5.
8705145725.5/8 = 1088143215.6875
1088143215.6875^(1/2) = 32987.0158651476

Var  estimates variance based on a sample
Formula in cell D11:=SUBTOTAL(10, D3:D10)The VAR.S function returns the variance based on the entire population. Variance is the average of the squared differences from the mean.
x ̅ is the average.
n is how many values.97496+33568+90964+24088+98629+72498+89764+14867 = 521874
521874/8 = 65234.25 is the average number.(9749665234.25)^2 + (3356865234.25)^2 + (9096465234.25)^2 + (2408865234.25)^2 + (9862965234.25)^2 + (7249865234.25)^2 + (8976465234.25)^2 + (1486765234.25)^2
becomes
32261.75^2 + (31666.25)^2 + 25729.75^2 + (41146.25)^2 + 33394.75^2 + 7263.75^2 + 24529.75^2 + (50367.25)^2
becomes
1040820513.0625 + 1002751389.0625 + 662020035.0625 + 1693013889.0625 + 1115209327.5625 + 52762064.0625 + 601708635.0625 +2536859872.5625
equals 8705145725.5.
8705145725.5/(81) = 1243592246.5

Varp  estimates variance based on population
Formula in cell D11:=SUBTOTAL(10, D3:D10)The VAR.P function returns the variance based on the entire population. Variance is the average of the squared differences from the mean.
x ̅ is the average.
n is how many values.97496+33568+90964+24088+98629+72498+89764+14867 = 521874
521874/8 = 65234.25 is the average number.(9749665234.25)^2 + (3356865234.25)^2 + (9096465234.25)^2 + (2408865234.25)^2 + (9862965234.25)^2 + (7249865234.25)^2 + (8976465234.25)^2 + (1486765234.25)^2
becomes
32261.75^2 + (31666.25)^2 + 25729.75^2 + (41146.25)^2 + 33394.75^2 + 7263.75^2 + 24529.75^2 + (50367.25)^2
becomes
1040820513.0625 + 1002751389.0625 + 662020035.0625 + 1693013889.0625 + 1115209327.5625 + 52762064.0625 + 601708635.0625 +2536859872.5625
equals 8705145725.5.
8705145725.5/8 = 1088143215.6875
Add subtotal to
This setting allows you to choose which columns to add subtotals to.
Replace current subtotals
This checkbox lets you substitute current subtotals with new ones, if enabled.
Pagebreak between groups
This checkbox, if enabled, lets you put each group in a new page.
Summary below data
The last checkbox adds a summary below all groups, for example, if a total is calculated for each group then a grand total is calculated below all groups.
Add data bars
Now it is time to spice up your data table with some chart bars. Hold on, I am not going to insert a chart. Conditional Formatting is what we are going to use actually.
 Create a new column and type =C2 in cell D2.
 Copy cell D2 to the cells below.
 Remove cells that link to subtotals and grand total.
 Select cell range D2:D24.
 Go to tab "Home" on the ribbon.
 Click "Conditional formatting" button.
 Click "Data Bars".
 Click "More Rules..."
 Enable the checkbox "Show Bar Only".
 I chose a "Solid Border" from the "Border" dropdown menu.
 Click OK button.
The Data Bars let you quickly compare numbers, finding outliers, or interesting statistics.
Remove all subtotals
You can easily remove all subtotals, select the cell range you want to remove subtotals from. Go to tab "Data", click "Subtotal" button. Click "Remove All" button.
Build a Pivot Table/Pivot chart
A pivot table allows you to summarize a data table in many different ways, using different criteria. It is easy and you will be analyzing your data in no time. Pivot tables are subtotals on steroids.
I highly recommend reading this blog post: Analyze trends using pivot tables, there is also a quick introduction to pivot tables.
You can also compare data, year to year, month to month and whatever time frame you like.
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