## Excel Functions by category

Functions alphabetically | Functions by category

Functions are sorted by category, click a category name to find Excel functions in that category.

### Array manipulation

CHOOSECOLS function returns given columns from a cell range or array.
CHOOSEROWS function returns given rows from a cell range or array.
DROP function removes a given number of rows or columns from a 2D cell range or array.
EXPAND function increases a cell range or array by a specified number of columns and rows.
HSTACK function combines cell ranges or arrays. Joins data to the first blank cell to the right of a cell range or array (horizontal stacking)
TAKE function returns a given number of rows or columns from a 2D cell range or array.
TOCOL function rearranges values in 2D cell ranges to a single column.
TOROW function rearranges values from a 2D cell range to a single row.
VSTACK function combines cell ranges or arrays. Joins data to the first blank cell at the bottom of a cell range or array (vertical stacking)
WRAPCOLS function rearranges values from a single row to a 2D cell range based on a given number of values per column.
WRAPROWS function rearranges values from a single row to a 2D cell range based on a given number of values per column.

### Compatibility

BETADIST function calculates the beta distribution, itÂ represents outcomes in the form of probabilities.
BETAINV function calculates the inverse of the beta distribution.
BINOMDIST function calculates the individual term binomial distribution probability
CHIDIST function calculates the probability of the chi-squared distribution.
CHIINV function calculates the inverse probability of the chi-squared distribution.Â
CHITEST function calculates the test for independence, the value returned from the chi-squared statistical distribution and the correct degrees of freedom. Use this function to check if hypothesized results are valid.
CONFIDENCE function calculates the confidence interval for a population mean, using a normal distribution.
CRITBINOM function calculates the minimum value for which the binomial distribution is equal to or greater than a given threshold value.
EXPONDIST function calculates the exponential distribution representing an outcomeÂ in the form of probability.
FDIST function calculates the F probability of the right-tailed distribution for two tests.
FLOOR function rounds aÂ number down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple of significance.
FORECAST function calculates a value based on existing x and y values using linear regression. Use this function to predict linear trends.
FTEST function calculates the value from an F-test. The value shows if the variances from two data sets are not significantly different.
GAMMADIST function calculates the gamma often used in queuing analysis (probability statistics).
LOGNORMDIST function calculates the cumulative lognormal distribution of argument x, based on aÂ normally distributed ln(x) with the arguments of mean and standard_dev.
MODE function calculates the most frequent number in a cell range.
PERCENTRANK function calculates the percent rank of a given number compared to the whole data set.
QUARTILE function returns the quartile of a data set, use the QUARTILE function to divide data into groups.
RANK function calculates the rank of a specific number compared to a list of numbers.
STDEV function calculatesÂ the standard deviation of a groupÂ of values.

### Database

DAVERAGE function calculates an average based on values in a list or database that meet specific conditions.
DCOUNT function counts cells containing numbers and that meet a condition or criteria.
DCOUNTA function counts nonempty cells in a column you specify, in a database where records also meet a condition or criteria.
DGET function fetches a value from a column in a database whose records meet a condition or criteria.
DMAX function extracts the maximum number from a column in a database whose records match a condition or criteria.
DMIN function extracts the smallest number from a column in a database whose records match a condition or criteria.
DPRODUCT function multiplies numbers that match a condition or criteriaÂ in a database.
DSTDEV function calculates an estimation of the standard deviation based on a sample of a population. The function also allows you to specify criteria applied to a database.
DSTDEVP function calculates the standard deviation based on a population. The function also allows you to specify criteria applied to a database.
DSUM function adds numbers in a database/list that meets a condition or criteria.
DVARP function returns theÂ variance of an entire population. The numbers are in a column of records in a dataset or database that meets a given condition or criteria.

### Date and Time

DATE function returns a number that acts as a date in the Excel environment.
DATEDIF function returns the number of days, months, or years between two dates.Â The DATEDIF function exists in order to ensure compatibility with Louts 1-2-3.
DATEVALUE function returns an Excel date value (serial number) based on a date stored as text.
DAY function extracts the day as a number from an Excel date.
DAYS function calculates the number of days between two dates.
EDATE function returns a date determined by a start date and a number representing how many months.
EOMONTH function returnsÂ an Excel date for the last day of a given month using a number and a start date.
HOUR function returns an integer representing the hour of an Excel time value.
MINUTE function returns a whole number representing the minute based on an Excel time value. The returned number is ranging from 0 to 59.
MONTH function extracts the month as a number from an Excel date.
NETWORKDAYS function returns the number of working days between two dates, excluding weekends. It also allows you to ignore a list of holiday dates that you can specify.
NETWORKDAYS.INTL function calculates the number of working days between two dates, excluding weekends.
NOW function returns the current date and time.
SECOND function returns an integer representing the second based on an Excel time value
TIME function returns a decimal value between 0 (zero) representing 12:00:00 AM and 0.99988426 representingÂ 11:59:59 P.M.
TIMEVALUE function returns a decimal number based on a text string.
TODAY function returns the Excel date (serial number) of the current date.
WEEKDAY function converts a date to a weekday number from 1 to 7.
WEEKNUM function calculates a given date's week number based on a return_type parameter that determines which day the week begins.
WORKDAY function returns a date based on a start date and a given number of working days (nonweekend and nonholidays).
YEAR function converts a date to a number representing the year in the date.
YEARFRAC function returns the fraction of the year based on the number of whole days between a start date and an end date.

### Engineering

BIN2DEC function converts a binary number to the decimal number system.
BIN2HEX function converts a binary number to hexadecimal.
BIN2OCT function converts a binary number to octal.
BITAND function calculates a bitwise 'AND' of two numbers.
BITLSHIFT function calculates a number whose binary representation is shifted left by a specified number of bits.
BITOR function performs a bitwise 'OR' of two numbers.
BITRSHIFT function calculates the number where the binary equivalent is shifted right by a specified number of bits and then converted back to a number.
BITXOR function calculates a decimal number that is a result of a bitwise comparison "XOR" of two numbers.
COMPLEX function returns a complex number based on a real and imaginary number.
CONVERT function converts a number from one measurement system to another.
DEC2BIN function converts a decimal number to a binary number.
DEC2HEX function converts a decimal number to a hexadecimal number.
DEC2OCT function converts a decimal number to an octal number.
DELTA function evaluates whether two numerical values are equal.
HEX2BIN function converts a hexadecimal number to a binary number.
HEX2DEC function converts a hexadecimal number to a decimal number.
HEX2OCT function converts hexadecimal to octal.
IMABS function calculates the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMAGINARY function calculates the imaginary value of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMARGUMENT function calculates theta Î¸ which is an angle displayed in radians based on complex numbers in rectangular form.
IMCONJUGATE function calculates the complex conjugate of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMCOS function calculates the cosine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMCOSH function calculates the hyperbole cosine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMCOT function calculates the cotangent of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMCSC function calculates the cosecant of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMCSCH function calculates the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMDIV function calculates the quotient of two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMEXP function calculates the exponential of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMLN function calculates the natural logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMLOG10 function calculates the base 10 logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMLOG2 function calculates the base 2 logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMPOWER function calculates a complex number raised to a given power in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMPRODUCT function calculates the product of complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMREAL function calculates the real coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMSEC function calculates the secant of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMSECH function calculates the hyperbolic secant of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMSIN function calculates the sine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMSINH function calculates the hyperbolic sine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMSQRT function calculates the square root of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMSUB function calculates the difference between two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMSUM function calculates the total of two or more complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.
IMTAN function calculates the tangent of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.

### Financial

ACCRINT function calculates the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest.
ACCRINTM function calculates the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity.
AMORLINC function calculates the depreciation for each accounting period.
CUMPRINC function calculates theÂ accumulated principal based on a start and end period on a loan.
DB function calculates the depreciation of an asset for a given period using the fixed-declining balance method.
DDB function calculates the depreciation of an asset for a given period using the double-declining balance method or based on user input.
EFFECT function calculates the effective annual interest rate, given the nominal annual interest rate and the number of compounding periods per year.
FV function returns the future value of an investment based on a constant interest rate.
IPMT function calculates the interest payment for a specific period for an investment based on repeated constantÂ payments and a constant interest rate.
ISPMT function calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment.
NOMINAL function calculates the nominal annual interest rate based on the effective rate and the number of compounding periods per year.
NPER function calculates the number of periods for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a fixed interest rate.
PDURATION function calculates how many periods required by an investment to reach a given amount based on a rate in percentage.
PMT function returns the payment needed for borrowing a fixed sum of money based on constant payments (annuity) and interest rate.
PPMT function calculates the principal payment for a specific period for an investment based on repeated constantÂ payments and a constant interest rate.
PRICEMAT function calculates the price per \$100 nominal value of a bond that pays interest at maturity.
PV function calculates the net present value for an investment or loan.
RATE function returns the interest rate per period of an annuity.
RRI function calculates the growth of an investment in percent per period.
SYD function calculates the yearly asset depreciation of a given year.
TBILLPRICE function calculates the par amount (face value) for a Treasury bill.
TBILLYIELD function calculates the yield for a Treasury bill.
VDB function calculates the depreciation of an asset for a given period using the double-declining balance method or based on user input, you may use partial periods in this function.
XNPV function calculates net present value for cash flows that may or may not be periodic
YIELD function calculates the yield for a security that pays interest. The YIELD function is designed to calculate the bond yield.

### Information

CELL function gets information about the formatting, location, or the contents of a cell.
ERROR.TYPE function returns a number that represents one of the error values in Excel.
INFO function returns information about the current operating environment, file path, number of active worksheets, Excel version etc.
ISBLANK function returns TRUE if the argument is an empty cell, returns FALSE if not.
ISERR function returns TRUE if a cell returns an error, except error value #N/A.
ISERROR function returns TRUE if a cell contains an error.
ISFORMULA function returns TRUE if a cell contains a formula, FALSE if text, number or boolean value.
ISLOGICAL function returns TRUE if value is boolean.Â A boolean value is either TRUE or FALSE.
ISNA function returns TRUE if value is a #N/A error.
ISNONTEXT function returns TRUE if value is not text, also returns TRUE if cell is empty.
ISNUMBER function checks if a value is a number, returns TRUE or FALSE.
ISODD function returns TRUE if a cell contains an odd number, FALSE if even number.
ISREF function returns TRUE if value refers to a reference.
ISTEXT function returns TRUE if argument is text.
N function returns a value converted into a number.
NA function returns the error value #N/A meaning "value is not available".
SHEET function returns the sheet number of the cell reference sheet.
SHEETS function returns the number ofÂ sheets in a reference.
TYPE function use TYPE to find out what type of data is returned by a function or formula.

### Logical

AND function perform a logical test in eachÂ argument and if all arguments return TRUE the AND function returns TRUE.
BYCOL function passes all values in a column based on an array to a LAMBDA function, the LAMBDA function calculates new values based on a formula you specify.
BYROW function puts values from an array into a LAMBDA function row-wise.
FALSE function returns the logical (boolean) value FALSE.
IF function returns one value if the logical test is TRUE and another value if the logical test is FALSE.
IFERROR function if the value argument returns an error, the value_if_error argumentÂ is used.Â If theÂ valueÂ argument does NOT return an error, the IFERROR function returns the value argument.
IFNA function handles #N/A errors only, it returns a specific value if the formula returns a #N/A error.
IFS function checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition.
LAMBDA function build custom functions without VBA, macros or javascript.
MAKEARRAY function returns an array with a specific number of rows and columns calculated by applying a LAMBDA function.
MAP function passes all values in an array to a LAMBDA function, the LAMBDA function calculates new values based on a formula you specify. It then returns an array with the same size as the original array.
NOT function returns the boolean opposite to the given argument.
OR function evaluates a logical expression in eachÂ argument and if at least one argument returns TRUE the OR function returns TRUE. If all arguments returnÂ FALSE the OR function also returns FALSE.
REDUCE function shrinks an array to an accumulated value, a LAMBDA function is needed to properly accumulate each value in order to return a total.
SCAN function passes values in an array to a LAMBDA function, the LAMBDA function calculates new values based on a formula you specify. It then returns an array with the same size as the original array using an accumulator parameter.
SWITCH function returns a given value determined by an expression and a list of values.
TRUE function returns the logical (boolean) value TRUE.
XOR function calculates the logical exclusiveÂ OR meaning if at least one of the arguments evaluates to TRUE then the XOR returns TRUE. All arguments must be evaluated to FALSE for the XOR function to return FALSE.

### Lookup and reference

ADDRESS function returns the address of a specific cell, you need to provide a row and column number.
AREAS function returns the number of cell ranges and single cells in a reference.
CHOOSE function gets a value based on a number.
COLUMN function returns the column number of the top-left cell of a cell reference.
COLUMNS function calculates the number of columns in a cell range.
FILTER function extracts values/rows based on a condition or criteria.
FORMULATEXT function returns a formula as a text string.
HLOOKUP function searches the top row in a data range for a value and return another value on the same column in a row you specify.
HYPERLINK function builds a link in a cell.
INDEX function returns a value or reference from a cell range or array, you specify which value based on a row and column number.
INDIRECT function returns the cell reference based on a text string and shows the content of that cell reference.
LOOKUP function find a value in a cell range and return a corresponding value on the same row.
MAKEARRAY function returns an array with a specific number of rows and columns calculated by applying a LAMBDA function.
MATCH function returns the relative position of an item in an array that matchesÂ a specified value in a specific order.
OFFSET function returns a reference to a range that is a given number of rows and columns from a given reference.
ROW function calculates the row number of a cell reference.
ROWS function calculate the number of rows in a cell range.
SORT function sorts values from a cell range or array
SORTBY function sorts a cell range or array based on values in a corresponding range or array.
STOCKHISTORY function downloads stock prices based on a stock quote
TRANSPOSE function converts a vertical range to a horizontal range, or vice versa.
UNIQUE function returns a unique or unique distinct list.
VLOOKUP function lets you search the leftmost column for a value and return another value on the same row in a column you specify.
XLOOKUP function search one column for a given value, and return a corresponding value in another column from the same row.
XMATCH function searches for an item in an array or cell range and returns the relative position.

### Math and trigonometry

ABS function converts negative numbers to positive numbers.
ACOS function calculates the arccosine, or inverse cosine, of a number.
ACOT function calculates the inverse cotangent of a number.
AGGREGATE function perform different specific functions to a list or database.
ASIN function calculatesÂ the arcsine of a number.
ATAN function calculates the arctangent of a number.
ATAN2 function calculates the arctangent of an angle using specific x- and y-coordinates.
BASE function converts a number into a text representation with a given radix (base).
CEILING function rounds a number up to its nearest multiple.
COMBIN function returns the number of combinations for a specific number of elements out of a larger group.
COMBINA function calculatesÂ the number of combinations for a given number of elements from a larger group of elements.
COS function calculates the cosine of an angle.
COT function calculates the cotangent of an angle specified in radians.
CSC function calculates theÂ cosecant of an angle (radians).
DECIMAL function converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number.
DEGREES function calculates degrees from radians.
EVEN function rounds a number up to the nearest even whole number.
EXP function returns e raised to the power of a number, e equals 2.71828182845904.
FACT function returns the factorial of a number.
FIXED function rounds a number to the specified number of decimals, formats the number in decimal format using a period and commas, and returns the result as text.
FLOOR.MATH function rounds a number down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
FLOOR.PRECISE function rounds a number down to the nearest integer or nearest multiple of significance.
GCD function calculates the greatestÂ common divisor that divides all given arguments without a remainder.
INT function removes the decimal part from positive numbers and returns the whole number (integer) except negative values are rounded down to the nearest integer.
LCM function calculates the least common multiple. The least common multiple is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of all integer arguments. Use the LCM function to find fractions with different denominators.
LET function lets you name intermediate calculation results which can shorten formulas considerably and improve performance.
LN function calculates the natural logarithm of a number. Natural logarithms are based on the constant e.
LOG function calculates the logarithm of a number to a specific base.
LOG10 function calculates the logarithm of a number using the base 10.
MINVERSE function calculates the inverse matrix for a given array.
MMULT function calculatesÂ the matrix product of two arrays, an array as the same number of rows as array1 and columns as array2.
MOD function returns the remainder after a number is divided by divisor.
MROUND function calculates a number rounded to a given multiple.
MULTINOMIAL function calculates the ratio of the factorial of a sum of values to the product of factorials.
MUNIT function calculatesÂ the identity matrix for a given dimension
PI function returns the number pi (Â¶).
POWER function calculates a number raised to a power.
PRODUCT function returns the product of the numbers given in the argument.
QUOTIENT function returns the integer portion of a division.
RAND function calculates a random real number greater than or equal to 0 and less than 1.
RANDARRAY function creates an array of random numbers
RANDBETWEEN function returns a random whole number between the numbers you specify.
ROUND function rounds a number based on the number of digits you specify.
ROUNDDOWN function rounds a number down based on the number of digits to which you want to round the number.
ROUNDUP function calculates a number rounded up based on the number of digits to which you want to round the number.
SEC function calculates the secant of an angle.
SEQUENCE function creates a list of sequential numbers.
SERIESSUM function calculates the sum of a power series based on a formula.
SIGN function returns the sign of a number. 1 for a positiv number, 0 (zero) for a 0 (zero) and -1 for a negative number.
SIN function calculates the sine of an angle.
SQRT function calculates the positive square root.
SUBTOTAL function returns a subtotal from a list or database, you can choose from a variety ofÂ arguments that determine what you want the function to do.
SUM function allows you to add numerical values, the function returns the sum in the cell it is entered in. The SUM function is cleverly designed to ignore text and boolean values, adding only numbers.
SUMIF function sums numerical values based on a condition.
SUMIFS function adds numbers based on criteria.
SUMPRODUCT function calculates the product of corresponding values and then returns the sum of each multiplication.
SUMSQ function calculates the sum of the squares of the arguments.
SUMX2MY2 function calculates the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.
SUMX2PY2 function calculates the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.
SUMXMY2 function calculates the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays.
TAN function calculates the tangent of an angle.
TRUNC function removes the fractional part of the number to an integer.

### Statistical

AVEDEV function calculatesÂ the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean.
AVERAGE function calculates the average of numbers in a cell range.
AVERAGEA function returns the average of a group of values. TextÂ and boolean value FALSE evaluates to 0. TRUE to 1.
AVERAGEIF function returns the average of cell values that are valid for a given condition.
AVERAGEIFS function returns the average of cell values that evaluates to TRUE for multiple criteria.
BETA.DIST function calculates the beta distribution.
BETA.INV function calculates the inverse of the cumulative beta distribution.
BINOM.DIST function calculates the individual term binomial distribution probability.
BINOM.INV function calculates the minimum value for which the binomial distribution is equal to or greater than a given threshold value.
CHISQ.DIST function calculates the probability of the chi-squared distribution, cumulative distribution or probability density.
CHISQ.DIST.RT function calculates the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
CHISQ.INV function calculates the inverse of the left-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
CHISQ.INV.RT function calculates the inverse of the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
CHISQ.TEST function calculates the test for independence, the value returned from the chi-squared statistical distribution and the correct degrees of freedom. Use this function to check if hypothesized results are valid.
CONFIDENCE.NORM function calculates the confidence interval for a population mean.
CONFIDENCE.T function calculates the confidence range for a population mean using a Student's t distribution.
CORREL function calculatesÂ the correlation between two groups of numbers.
COUNT function counts all numerical values in an argument.
COUNTA function counts the non-empty or non-blank cells in a cell range.
COUNTBLANK function counts empty or blank cells in a range.
COUNTIF function calculates the number of cells that is equal to a condition.
COUNTIFS function calculates the number of cells across multiple ranges that equals all given conditions.
COVARIANCE.P function calculates the covariance meaning the average of the products of deviations for each pair in two different datasets.
COVARIANCE.S function calculates the sample covariance meaning the average of the products of deviations for each pair in two different datasets.
EXPON.DIST function calculates the exponential distribution representing an outcomeÂ in the form of probability.
F.DIST function calculates the F probability for two tests.
F.DIST.RT function calculates theÂ right-tailed F probability for two tests.
F.TEST function calculates the two-tailed probability from an F-test
FORECAST.LINEAR function calculates a value based on existing x and y values using linear regression.
FREQUENCY function calculates how often values occur within a range of values and then returns a vertical array of numbers.
GAMMA.DIST function calculates the gamma often used in queuing analysis (probability statistics) that may have a skewed distribution.
GEOMEAN function calculates the geometric mean.
GROWTH function returns estimated exponential growth based on given data.
HARMEAN function calculates the harmonic mean.
HYPGEOM.DIST function calculates the hypergeometric distribution.
INTERCEPT function returns a value representing the y-value where a line intersects the y-axis.
KURT function calculates the kurtosis.
LARGE function calculates the k-thÂ largest value from an array of numbers.
LINEST function returns an array of values representing the parameters of a straight line based on the "least squares" method.
LOGEST function returns an array of values representing the parameters of an exponential curve that fits your data, based on the "least squares" method.
LOGNORM.DIST function calculates the lognormal distribution of argument x, based on aÂ normally distributed ln(x) with the arguments ofÂ meanÂ andÂ standard_dev.
MAX function calculate the largest number in a cell range.
MAXIFS function calculates the highest value based on a condition or criteria.
MEDIAN function calculates the median based on a group of numbers. The median is the middle number of a group of numbers.
MIN function returns the smallest number in a cell range.
MINA function returns the smallest number. Text values and blanks are ignored, boolean value TRUE evaluates to 1 and FALSE to 0 (zero).
MINIFS function calculates the smallest value based on a given set of criteria.
MODE.MULT function returns the most frequent number in a cell range. It will return multiple numbers if they are equally frequent.
MODE.SNGL function calculates the most frequent value in an array or range of data.
NORM.DIST function calculates the normal distribution for a given mean and standard deviation.
NORM.INV function calculates the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for a given mean and standard deviation.
PERCENTRANK.EXC function calculates the percent rank of a given number in a data set.
PERCENTRANK.INC function calculates the percent rank of a given number compared to the whole data set.
PERMUT function returns the number of permutations for a set of elements that can be selected from a larger number of elements.
PERMUTATIONA function returns the number of permutations for a specific number of elements that can be selected from a larger group of elements.
PHI function calculates a number of the density function for a standard normal distribution.
PROB function calculates the probability that values in a range are between a given lower and upper limit.
QUARTILE.EXC function returns the quartile of a data set.
QUARTILE.INC function returns the quartile of a data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, inclusive.
RANK.AVG function returns the rank of a number out of a list of numbers.
RANK.EQ function calculates the rank of a number in a list of numbers, based on its position if the list were sorted.
SKEW function calculatesÂ the skewness of a group of values.
SLOPE function calculates the slope of the linear regression line through coordinates.
SMALL function returns the k-th smallest value from a group of numbers.
STANDARDIZE function calculates a normalized value from a distribution characterized by mean and standard_dev.
STDEV.P function returns standard deviation based on the entire population.
STDEV.S function returns standard deviation based on a sample of the entire population.
STDEVA function estimates the standard deviation from a sample of values.
STDEVPA function returns the standard deviation based on the entire population, including text and logical values.
TREND function calculates values along a linear trend.
TRIMMEAN function calculates the mean of the interior of a data set.
VAR.P function returns the variance based on the entire population. The function ignores logical and text values.
VAR.S function the VAR.S function tries to estimate the variance based on a sample of the population. The function ignores logical and text values.

### Text

ARRAYTOTEXT function returns an array of text values from a given cell range.
ASC function converts full-width (double-byte) characters to half-width (single-byte) characters.
CHAR function converts aÂ number to the corresponding ANSI character determined by your computers character set.
CLEAN function deletes the first 32 nonprinting characters in 7-bit ASCII code in your argument.
CODE function returns the corresponding number for the first character based on your computers character set. (PC- ANSI)
CONCAT function concatenates values from multiple cells.
CONCATENATE function joins text strings.
EXACT function checks if two values are precisely the same, it returns TRUE or FALSE. The EXACT function also considers upper case and lower case letters.
FIND function returns the position of a specific string in another string, reading left to right. Note, the FIND function is case-sensitive.
LEFT function extracts a specific number of characters always starting from the left.
LEN function returns the number of characters in a cell value.
LOWER function converts a value to lower case letters.
MID function returns a substring from a string based on theÂ starting position and the number of characters you want to extract.
REPLACE function substitutes a part of a text string based on the number of characters and length with a text string you provide.
REPT function repeats a specific text a chosen number of times.
RIGHT function extracts a specific number of characters always starting from the right.
SEARCH function returns the number of the character at which a specific character or text string is found reading left to right (not case-sensitive)
SUBSTITUTE function replaces a specific text string in a value. Case sensitive.
T function returns a text value if the argument is a text value.
TEXT function converts a value to text in a specific number format.
TEXTAFTER function extracts a string after a specific substring in a given value.
TEXTBEFORE function extracts a string before a specific substring from a given value.
TEXTJOIN function combines text strings from multiple cell ranges.
TEXTSPLIT function splits a string into an array based on delimiting values.
TRIM function deletes all blanks or space characters except single blanks between words in a cell value.
UNICHAR function calculates a character based on a Unicode number.
UNICODE function returns a Unicode number based on a character.
UPPER function converts a value toÂ upper case letters.
VALUE function converts a text string that represents a number to a number.
VALUETOTEXT function returns a value in text form. Text values are unmodified and non-text values are converted to text.

### Web

ENCODEURL function returns a URL-encoded string.
FILTERXML function extracts specific values from XML content by using the given xpath.
IMAGE function inserts an image into cells.
WEBSERVICE function gets data from a web service on the Internet or Intranet.

### Excel Function Basics

The sidebar (or click the hamburger icon if you are on mobile) shows a list of Excel functions based on category. Press CTRL + F in your web browser to quickly search the sidebar for the function you are looking for.

If you rather prefer an alphabetically sorted list then this link takes you to Excel functions sorted from A to Z.

### How to enter a function in Excel

You are now shown the arguments for the chosen function.

Enter the values for each argument, some arguments display a list of options if the function requires you to enter one of many predetermined parameters, see image below.

Use the arrow keys to select an argument and press TAB key to choose the selected argument. Type a closing parentheses when all arguments have been entered.

Lastly press ENTER or CTRL + SHIFT + ENTER if the function requires you to.

### How do I insert a function?

1. Select a cell.
2. Click the "fx" button next to the formula bar, a dialog box appears.
3. The dialog box allows you to search for a function. You can also browse functions based on category or recently used functions.
4. The dialog box also specifies the arguments of the selected function which is great if you are not familiar with the selected function.
5. At the very bottom of the dialog box is a link that takes you to Microsofts support page based on the function you selected.
6. Click the OK button.

This takes you to another dialog box that guides you through each argument in the selected function.

The dialog box describes each argument and lets you select cell(s) in your worksheet in order to complete the function.

Click the OK button when all arguments are specified.

### How many arguments in a function can I use?

It depends on the function, some lets you use up to 255 arguments and others have none. For example, the SUM function allows you to have up to 255 arguments in one function where as the TODAY function has no arguments.

An argument may contain a cell reference to a single cell or a cell reference to multiple cells, constants, arrays or structured references.

### What are the most used functions of Excel?

Excel provides you functions to perform mathematical, statistical and financial calculations.

The most used functions are probably:

### What are the most useful functions?

It depends who ask, users may have different goals. In general, if you have a task that is tedious and time-consuming there is a great chance there is a feature or function that can help you out.

Start by doing a internet search on what you want to accomplish in Excel, most likely there are others that have had the same problem/question.

Many consider the VLOOKUP function or INDEX - MATCH functions to be immensely powerful. They allow you to do lookups and return another value on the same row as the matching value.

In fact, there are som many functions that most problems you encounter can be solved. Excel lets you also, in most cases, combine several functions in order to build a formula that is exactly what you are looking for.

### How many functions are there in Excel?

It depends on your Excel version, older versions have fewer functions. There are at least 467 different functions in the latest version.

### Are the functions categorized?

Yes, there are at least 12 different categories.

### What are the latest Excel functions?

The following six functions are the latest in the Office 365 subscription:

### What functions are outdated?

Some functions have been replaced by newer better functions, you can find them in the Compatibility category. They are still working, however, they may be removed in future updates. I recommend that you replace the outdated functions with their newer equivalents.

### What is an Excel formula?

A formula calculates a value based on the function or functions used. It always begins with a equal sign so Excel can distinguish it from a text or numerical value.

### What is an array formula?

In general, an array formula calculates multiple values simultaneously and sometimes but not always return multiple values.

To enter an array formula, type the formula in a cell then press and hold CTRL + SHIFT simultaneously, now press Enter once. Release all keys.

The formula bar now shows the formula with a beginning and ending curly bracket telling you that you entered the formula successfully. Don't enter the curly brackets yourself.

This article demonstrates this in greater detail: How to enter an array formula

### What functions are you required to enter as an array formula?

In general, functions that return more than one value requires you to enter them as an array formula. You must enter the following functions as an array formula in order to make it work properly.

You can also use regular functions in an array formula and when you start doing that you are beginning to discover all the really powerful stuff that is possible with Excel.

### What is a volatile function?

A volatile function is a function that is recalculated every time the worksheet is calculated. What this means is that it may slow down your workbook considerably.

For example, the TODAY function returns the date each time the worksheet is recalculated to make sure the current day is displayed. This is not cpu intensive if entered in a single cell, however, hundreds or thousands of cells then you may notice a difference.

The following functions are volatile:

### How do I troubleshoot a function/formula?

Excel has a built-in feature that allows you to see each step in the formula calculation, this makes it easier to see which function is giving you trouble.

1. Select the cell containing the formula you want to troubleshoot.
2. Go to tab "Formulas" on the ribbon.
3. Click "Evaluate Formula" button, a dialog box appears.
4. Click the "Evaluate" button to see each calculation step.

You can also right-click on the cell to see a context menu. This menu allows you to investigate the error further, you can see a descriptive text of the error message.

The second line allows you to see the support page of this error, the third line opens the "Evaluate formula" tool that I demonstrated above.

### What is a cell reference?

A cell reference is an address to a specific cell in your workbook. Each column is labeled from A to XFD and rows are numbered from 1 to 1048576, a cell reference contains the column letter and the row number like coordinates.

Example, here is a cell reference: Sheet1!G34. Sheet1 is the name of the worksheet the cell is located on. G is the column which is the seventh column from the left, 34 is the row number.